Succulents rooting in H2O

Cuttings rooted on H2O. Took 2 months to develop roots of 2 to 5 cm. These are Eurphorbia resinifera but also other Euphorbia species root well in water. Ideal temperature is around 20 degrees Celcius (=68 F). Just started an experiment with 2 Lophocereus species. Keep you updated.

The reason for this experiment is that there is an overseas demand for this rooted plant material and as it’s a regulation that no soil particle is allowed to leave the country.. (etc. etc.). At this stage we are rooting a few hundred Euphorbia cuttings (diverse species) in water.

We are no scientists (just make use of them) but we like to experiment and prefer to choose for the most unlikable things. Sometimes we succeed, sometimes not but when you never try you will never know.

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About Euphorbias

The Euphorbiaceae family consists of around 300 genera and about 7500 species of which approximately 870 are succulents. About 50 genera and 487 species are native to Southern Africa including Madagascar. These figures excludes the numerous varieties and hybrids such as those of the E. milii and E. pulcherrima (pointsettia).

The International Euphorbia Society covers the whole spectrum of this plant family including the non-succulent ones.

General information about succulent Euphorbias can be found here. The most valuable Internet source (including photo’s and cultivation info) however can be sourced at this site.

Euphorbias are named after the Greek surgeon Euphorbus.

Most of the succulent species of the Euphorbia are easy to grow in most parts of South Africa provided that there is sufficient drainage and the humidity is low. High humidity causes mildew and, combined with high temperatures, mealy bugs. Good drainage prevents Euphorbias from root mealy bugs and root rot (caused by fusarium fungus). Plant Euphorbias preferable on a slope and in well drained soil. Large collumnar plants always surrounded by rocks. In general Euphorbias are less susceptible to diseases than other succulent families. In the past we already submitted something about pest and disease control the green way . See also this contribution and these ones.

Propagation can be done by sowing and by means of cuttings.

Some Euphorbia species hybridise easy and to prevent this as much as possible is hand-pollination with a brush. Always plant two of more plants of the same specie next to each other.

As for cuttings: cuttings of succulent Euphorbias can best be taken towards the end of the dormant season. We normally take them towards the end of the South African Summer (February-March) and always in the early morning but preferable in the late afternoon. Keep the cuttings under a running tab until the cutting stops ‘bleeding’ latex. This milky sap is poisonous (always wash your hand afterwards and or wear protective clothing). Let the cuttings dry in a dry shady area with good ventilation for at least 3 to 4 days before planting them.

A real ‘green’ shade-cloth’

Many nurseries but also hobbyists are using shade-cloth to protect their nursery-succulents from sun-burn damage. Shade also has the advantage of less water evaporation.

Whatever colour shade-cloth one uses it always has the disadvantage of ‘horizon-pollution. That’s why Soekershof Walkabout started with a three year program to get rid of all shade-nets and replace this with natural shade. In another blogsite you can read how.

Natural shade by (caudiciform-) climbers has the disadvantage that it takes a few years before the area is covered and that it needs some additional cleaning (falling leaves -advantage: compost-). The most attractive advantage is a lively ‘shade-cloth’ with, in season(s), colourfull flowers.

Asclepiads

This group of highly succulent, more or less leafless plants belongs to the family Apocynaceae. Found exclusively in the Old World, they are widely distributed over the drier parts from the Southern-most tip of Africa to the southern shores of Europe and eastwards to Arabia, India and Myanmar. Of the roughly 330 known species, 182 occur in Southern Africa, and all but a handful of these are endemic to this region.

Asclepiadaceae is a plant family which differs from others by having a very complex sexual apparatus and a complicated pollination procedure. They are easyly recognisable by five-lobed flowers. The lobes are joined together at the base of flower (corolla).

There are about 2000 species of Asclepiadaceae split into some 300 genera, of which about half are succulent. The succulent ones are of interest, especially the group named stapeliads. Their flowers are miraculous. I have read somewhere:  “Orchids of the Succulent world”/   The flowers of stapeliads have one flaw only. Most of them don’t have a pleasant smell.

Asclepiads grow worldwide, from jungles of Indonesia to deserts and steppes of Africa while stapeliads grow only in the old world. There are some representatives in Europe, too, in Southern Italy and Spain. Most of them are from dry regions of South, East and North Africa, Arabian peninsula and some even from India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar (Burma) and Nepal.

Most Asclepiads enjoy warm conditions, and appreciate regular application of water  in hot Summer weather providing that the plants are in their growth phase. For some of the more difficult Asclepiads, heat is a requirement and watering should be more circumspect. At Soekershof Walkabout we always use rain water, and tend to water over the top of most plants – after all that is how it happens in habitat. However, many growers prefer to water plants from the bottom (simulating drier conditions where the roots seek underground moisture), and a careful approach to watering is essential for difficult or rare plants.  It is a good idea to allow the soil to dry out between waterings, and if the weather goes cold in the middle of the summer, then stop watering. Much of the reputation that Asclepiads have for rotting unexpectedly is probably related to watering plants too early in the year while still dormant, or when the weather is uncertain, or to attack by other pests such as root mealy bug, the damage from which allows disease into the tissues. Indoors Asclepiads seem to do best in very free-draining gritty compost  which helps the compost to dry out between watering. Peat-based composts, with lots of sharp sand and fine grit works well, but peat also encourages root-mealy bug.Always remove dead plant material (dead flowers, leaves, stems) from your growing space, as otherwise in damp weather it will become colonised by fungi and rapidly become a source of spores, which may in turn infect your asclepiads.

If a plant that was growing well suddenly goes into a decline, suspect root-mealy bug. This pest destroys the roots, preventing proper uptake of water, so the plant looks under-watered even though it is sitting on soggy compost. Probably the damage also helps fungi to enter the tissues, and the next stage is a rotten plant.
Ordinary mealy bugs are also a major problem with Asclepiads, and are difficult to eliminate from crevices between the stems. Mealy bugs can be spread through a collection by the wandering vegetative growth of tuber-forming Ceropegias. Scale insects are said to be a major pest of Asclepiads in some climates.
It is a good idea to take cuttings from suspect plants that are not thriving, clean off obvious infestation and start off some new plants in case the original can not be saved. 

 Here we replant most of the asclepiads (especially Stapelia-species) every one of two years on a new location. This also prevents rot caused by soil related fungi, etc.

 

Propagation

Many Asclepiads are readily grown from seed, and some people grow plants of the faster growing species to flowering size from seed each year, thus avoiding problems of overwintering. However, the seed of many species (e.g. Stapelia sp.) has a limited life expectancy, and should be sown fresh. Those species with fleshy stems are easily propagated from portions of the plant laid flat on a gritty potting mixture, when they will produce roots from the underside of the stems. Planting stem cuttings vertically seems generally less successful (an exception is the vine-like Ceropegia species e.g. C. radicans), and the portion of plant embedded in the compost is prone to rot rather than root. Tuber-forming Cereopegias can be propagated from small tubers formed at joints in the thin stems. Regular propagation of plants with a few cuttings seems to be the best insurance against loss of the main plant.

  Internet literature:

 Stapeliads 

Pollination 

Articles about stapeliads 

Grafting stapeliads

 Ceropegias:  

 

About Crassulaceae

The Crassulaceae or orpine family consists of 33 genera with a total of around 1400 species. These dicotyledons have the characteristic that they store water in their leaves. Most species are native to Southern Africa and the Northern Hemnisphere.

Another characteristic of this family is that the different species hybridise easily. Advised propagation is (leaf-)cuttings but for gardeners who like to experiment with cross pollination the crassulaceae are very rewarding.

All crassulaceae originate from areas where water is (sometimes) scarce.

In the Western Cape: no additional water in Winter but during long dry spells in Summer Crassulaceae will reward you with extra growth if you give them a good morning soak once every week.

Tip: cut flowerheads out of young plants. This will stimulate growth and spread.

Soil: In general Crassulaceae are not fuzzy about soil as long as it drains and the pH is somewhere between 6.5 and 8. They even grow in heavy clay but too much clay has the disadvantage that after heavy rainfall followed by high temperatures there is a risk of rot.

Pest and diseases: Most common are aphids which are a real pest for some Crassulaceae. Aphids can become a plaque during high temperatures after rainfall.

Crassulaceae originate from areas with a wide scope of temperature-zones (USDA 6-10/11) but most from (sub-)tropical climates.

In South Africa we experience regulary that overseas Crassulaceae like the ones blonging to the genera of Aeonium and Echeveria are sold as “indigenous” by nurseries. Maybe because some of the species of these genera are common in many South African gardens.

Some of the more common known, except the ones mentioned, genera of the Crassulaceae are:

Dudleya; Sempervivum; Sedum; Tylecodon; Cotyledon; Andromischus; Monanthes and Kalanchoe.

Three of our favorite Crassulaceae:

Kalanchoe marmorata: Originate from Ethiopia, Sudan, Kenia. This Kalanchoe has paddle-shaped blue-green leaves with purple markings. Attractive in any rockery of succulent garden. Large white pinwheel flowers in clumps. Easily to propagate with (leaf-)cuttings.

Crassula columnaris (“koesnaatjie“): This monocarpic dwarf (Western and Northern Cape) needs at least 5 years to mature and becomes 5 cm high. When mature it starts to flower. It can grow in full sun in well drained (slightly alkaline) soil. The plant will tell you when it needs water (shriveling leaves). The scent of the flower is divine. Propagation by seed or leaf-cuttings.

Kalanchoe orgyalis: This native from Madagascar is relatively rare in cultivation. This Kalanchoe has thick velvet-like leaves which makes it sensitive in climates with a high humidity. The leaves are silver toned mahogany coloured. The flowers are bright yellow. This specie becomes about 50 cm high but that can take a while. Kalanchoe orgyalis is very, very slow growing in comparison with the other species of this genus.

About Aloes

The genus name Aloe is derived from the Arabic, alloch and translated as allal in Greek and Hebrew, literally meaning bitter or bitter sap which is descriptive of Aloe sap. The genus Aloe belong to the family Asphodelaceae to which also other succulent genera such as Haworthia and Gasteria. A widely spread misunderstanding is that also the Agave and related American genera belong to the same famly. These belong to the family of the Agavaceae. Some Aloe species (f.e. A. Ferox, A. Barbados and A. Socotrine) are valued for their medical properties. There is however a large number of medical claims which are not scientifically proven up to date or are proven to be false. The globally best known Aloe is the Aloe barbadensis (better known under the previous botanical name Aloe vera). The Aloe barbadensis is commercially cultivated in the USA, Australia and India. In Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, and Gujarat, India, Aloe vera is raised as an organic. The crop is ready for harvest after 18 months from sowing. The average yield for organically grown aloe is approximately 12 t/ha. 

 Soil

A slightly alkaline (up to pH 8.5) sandy loam soil is the  most ideal for most Aloes but some prefer slight acidic soil (pH 5.5-6.5) such as A. mitriformis (A. perfoliata) and A. plicatilis. It is normally propagated through root suckers or by cuttings of the new growth. Because Aloe plants consist of 95% water, they are extremely frost tender. If they are grown outdoors in warm climates, they should be planted in full sun, or light shade. The soil should be moderately fertile, and fast draining. Established plants will survive a drought quite well, but for the benefit of the plant, water should be provided. 

Pests:

All known garden pests can be kept to a minimum by simply ensuring optimal growing conditions and a good selection of plants that attract wildlife to your garden. In principle a garden is always un-natural. One of the challenges of organic gardening is to make use of nature in order to strive towards an ecological balance. For our and your dissapointment: even nature is never in balance. There are many ‘surprises’ every year but without ‘ecological measurements’ these can go a bit out of control. A daily ‘inspection’ walk in the garden -preferable early morning or late afternoon- helps the gardener to foresee ‘threatening’ pests and diseases and making the right decisions towards preventive measurements.

Most common pests/diseases in aloes are aphids, scale insects and cancer.  

For scale insects the best results are obtained by physically removing scale using a cloth.

Occasional aphids on flower clusters and scale insects on leaves. These are relatively easy to control with water (high pressure) of, even better, preventive with a tea of garlic. Aphids are ‘farmed’ by ants. The ants regard aphids as their ‘milk cows’. Keeping ants away, two rings (10 cm or 4 inches space between them) of chalk powder on soil around aloes, minimalise the number of ants and aphids. 

Cancer: Caused by aloe-cancer mite.  This mite lives inside the plant and is the carrier of the virus and cause the cells to multiply and form ugly weird growths.  Cut out the affected part of the plant and let it dry.  General info about pest control and pest and disease prevention can be read elsewhere in this blog  

Propagating

Propagating is best done via cuttings. Sowing is also possible but bear in mind that Aloes hybridize easily. 

Southern Africa is home to a few hundred Aloe species. Two of our favorites are the Aloe perfoliata and the Aloe polyphylla. 

Aloe perfoliata

Growing A. perfoliata is very easy. The best results are achieved by simply making stem cuttings. Allow cuttings to dry for a few days and insert into river sand and keep moist. The roots appear after about two weeks. Seeds must be sown as fresh as possible. When kept too long they are parasitized by small crawling insects. The best time for sowing would be in the winter, June to July. Use coarse river sand and cover seeds lightly, then keep moist. It is advisable to treat seeds with a tea of khaki-bush, as seedlings are prone to damping off, a fungus that eventually kills the young plants. Simply add tea to the soil. After germination, when plants are about 20 to 30 mm, plant over using a sandy-loam medium. If you have a garden with clay soil, use some bone meal to break up and nourish the soil. Mature plants in the garden may from time to time be subjected to attack from scale insects and aphids.

Aloe polyphylla originates from high, relatively cold, altitudes in Lesotho. It is a very difficult plant to cultivate in the open in the Western Cape. It’s main requirement is well-drained soil. It performs best when planted on a slope (or planted up at a slight angle so water does not collect in the spiral), where it can enjoy sun, or part (afternoon-) shade in the hottest areas. It also does well in pots. Water requirements depend on soil and weather. They are generally suited to low water, but prosper with some summer water. 

Information about South African Aloe species can be obtained via one of the websites of the National Biodiversity Institute. This site contains a wealth of info of many indigenous plants including succulents.

About sowing succulents

Sowing seeds from your own plants is the most rewarding way of propagating. You see the seeds germinating and young plants grow into mature ‘ornaments’ in your garden.

There are also a few disadvantages: it’s time consuming and labour extensive.

It all starts with the harvesting and cleaning of the seeds.

Bear in mind that some plants hybridise easily. You might think you have seeds of the Aloe ferox because your harvested the seeds from an A. ferox. But whatif this aloe was pollinated by an Aloe vera? We’ve learned our lesson with this. In the beginning we bought quite a few aloes at one of the National Botanical Gardens in South Africa; all nicely labeled with their botanical names. Almost all turned out to be hybrids. Some cacti and caudiciforms (i.e. cyphostemma sp., pachypodium sp.) also hybridise easily. To avoid this for at least 95 percent it’s the best to plant more succulents of the same specie in a group (not nearby species of the same genus) and pollinate manual with a brush. Manual pollination is also a good way of communicating with your ‘babies’.

The best results are achieved with fresh seeds. In general the viability of the seeds declines in time; sometimes even after a month or so. Take the seed-pods from the plant, wash the seed thoroughly (most of seeds are ‘packed’ in an ‘inhibitor’), let the cleaned seed dry and than sow. That sounds easy but it is not always like that. Special precautions have to be taken when harvesting and cleaning the seeds from amongst others euphorbia- and cyphostemma species. The sap of the cyphostemma berries can cause irritation and that of the euphorbias is poisonous. Wear protective hand-gloves when cleaning those seeds. In the description of the different succulent families and individual plants in the future we will indicate this precaution.

 There are several recipes for soil mixtures and sometimes they  differ per family, genus or even per specie. Each nursery has its own special recipes and all of these seem sufficient. Most books advise you to use a cactus mix which can be purchased at nurseries. Some succulent nurseries apply vermiculite or perlite mixed with a little bit compost. It works nicely and we have tried it a few times on a small scale with good results. But we do not like to apply unnatural products to our soil mixtures. Another disadvantage on the longer term is that if you keep your plants in the original nursery pots with these unnatural products without re-potting them in a proper mix; their lifespan will be shortened.

For most succulents we use for sowing a simple mix of coarse sand (eventually added with some fine grit) with approx. 5 percent fine compost. Mix this thorougly and add some kelpak (SeaGro) dissolved in water (50 cc kelpak in 10 litres water) until the mix is damp (not wet). Fill the seed-tray(s) with this mix, sow and top it of with a layer of sand with the thickness of the seed. In the heat of Summer we top it with a water retaining layer of sand/clay (1:1) mix or clayish loam. This general method works for at least 90 percent of the different succulents with a high (or at least above 70%) success rate. In the description of the different succulent families and individual plants in the future we’ll come back to this subject.

After sowing keep the soil damp. Depending on the temperature mist-spray regularly. Never let the soil dry out. An option is also to cover the seed-tray with transparent plastic foil. If you seed in pots you can use the top of a cola bottle to achieve the same effect.

As soon as the seeds are germinated take this cover away and give the pots/trays a 10 minutes soak from down under as described in the chapter about cuttings

And again: this is all a rough outline. As described before: it’s all in the fingers (not only in your head or in books). Every gardener develops his/her own way of doing things. This rough outline provides you with a nice start for one of the most rewarding things-to-do.